Retooling the Weapons Defense Industry
for Harnessing Frictional Energy in Space
Know plasma, know 99.999% of the Universe
(No plasma, no Universe)
NOTE: Please link below to for the Beautiful Photos that accompany  
this article.

The Plasma Universe is a term coined by Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfven to highlight the importance  
of plasma throughout the Universe.

See how much you think you know about cosmic plasma below, and then check out Plasma-
Universe articles, images and the Plasma Universe Timeline.
What is Plasma?
We're familiar with solids, liquids and gases, such as solid ice, liquid water and gaseous steam. But  
heat atoms more, and they 'split' into free ions and electrons: a plasma.

Where is Plasma?
The visible Universe is 99.999% plasma. The Sun is about 100% plasma, as are all stars. Plasma  
makes up nearly 100% of the interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic medium. The Earth's  
ionosphere is plasma.

Why is Plasma So?
Plasma react very strongly to electromagnetic forces, and is the dominant force in many cosmic  
plasmas, e.g. stellar surfaces, active galactic nuclei, interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic  

Electrified Plasmas
Space plasma moving through a magnetic field generates its own electric current, can act as a  
unipolar inductor, and conducts electricity better than metals, e.g. the heliospheric current sheet,  
and Birkeland currents.
Plasma Filaments
Strong radial magnetic fields can make a plasma pinch like the hourglass-shaped nebula above;
produce characteristic filaments like in the plasma ball; and produce particle beams as seen in the
dense plasma focus.

Galaxy Simulations
Computer simulations of two interacting Birkeland currents with plasma clouds trapped in parallel
magnetic filaments simulate evolving galaxy formations, without the need for dark matter and black

Complex Dusty Plasmas
A gas as little as 1% ionized may behave as a plasma (e.g. the ionosphere). In addition to light and
friction, dust and grains are charged inside a plasma, and behave as one, such as the Glowing Eye

The quasi-neutrality of plasmas, means they tend overall to be electrically neutral. But plasmas can
also violate quasi-neutrality, producing charged regions in double
layers and particle beams, such as in M87's jet.

Types of Plasmas
Plasmas vary according to temperature and density, and have characteristics that scale over many
orders of magnitude.
Link to Plasma Universe 

Link to Plasma Science

Link to Plasma Coalition

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